Sqrt In C Without Math Homework

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arccosineacos(x) or cos^-1(x)
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arcsecantasec(x) or sec^-1(x)
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Euler's number (2.71828...) e^x or exp(x)
natural logarithm (base e)ln(x)
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More specifically, one way is binary search. Given a range [low, high] in which your square root lies, you can test if the square of (low + high) / 2 is greater than the value you're square rooting or not. If it's greater, then your new range is [low, (low + high)/2], if less, then your new range is [(low + high)/2, high]. Keep narrowing this range in half until the value (low + high)/2 is either <= low or >= high (which it will be, eventually, because you're using doubles.)

You need to pick appropriate starting values of low and high, of course -- one choice is 1 and the number you're taking the square root of.

This algorithm is rather slow, requiring about 52 or 64 iterations for reasonable numbers (if you're using the double datatype), but if if the number you're square-rooting is very, very close to zero, it will have to run thousands of iterations before it terminates (because instead of running into the limits of a double's precision, you'll be descending down to lower and lower exponents). Maybe you'd then want to make 0 a special case, tested for at the beginning.

A faster algorithm to find the square root of x is to compute f(f(...(f(f(f(f(1))))...)), where f(y) = (x/y + y)*0.5, and where f is iterated sufficiently many times.

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