LaTeX supports bibliographies out of the box, either embedding the references in your document or storing them in an external file. This article explains how to manage bibliography with the environment and the BibTeX system.
Note: If you are starting from scratch it's recommended to use biblatex since that package provides localization in several languages, it's actively developed and makes bibliography management easier and more flexible.
Standard bibliography commands in LaTeX have a similar syntax to that of lists and items.
The environment produces a list of references; such list will be titled "References" in a article document class, and "Bibliography" in book and report document classes. A parameter inside braces, in the example, indicates the number of entries to be added; this parameter can not be greater than 99.
To create a bibliography entry the command is used. A parameter inside braces is set to label this entry and can later be used as identifier for this reference. After the closing brace the text with the name of the author, the book title, publisher and so on is entered.
ShareLaTeX provides several templates with pre-defined styles to manage bibliography. See this link
Open an example in ShareLaTeX
The example presented in the introduction only contains list of references, the next example shows how to cite the entries of that list within the document.
The command insert the number corresponding to the bibliography entry whose label is passed inside braces. For example, the output of is .
The information printed by the command depends on the bibliography style used. See Bibtex bibliography styles.
Open an example in ShareLaTeX
Bibliography management with Bibtex
BibTeX is a widely used bibliography management tool in LaTeX, with BibTeX the bibliography entries are kept in a separate file and then imported into the main document.
Once the external bibliography file is imported, the command is used just as in the introductory example.
This uses the following commands:
- Imports the BibTeX file "sample.bib" to display the bibliography. To import several .bib files just write them comma-separated inside the braces, the file extension is not necessary.
- Sets the bibliography style to be used in this document. The information displayed depends on the bibliography style used, even if the entry contains information about the date, author, title, publisher, and abstract, the style used might only print the title and the author. See Bibtex bibliography styles which contains examples of the default bibliography styles in LaTeX.
- This will print a number of text, depending on the bibliography style, to reference the bibliography entry whose label is passed to the command. In this case, the label produces .
When the main document is compiled, a .bbl file is generated from the .bib file. This is simply a .tex file reorganising the information in the .bib file in a environment, as above. On ShareLaTeX the .bbl file is stored in the cache, and you can download it from the list of other logs and files.
Note: Unicode characters are not supported on BibTeX. Also, if there are too many bibliography entries (+100) it may not work properly. See the further reading section for links to other bibliography management tools.
Open an example of the bibtex package in ShareLaTeX
The bibliography file
Bibliographic references are usually kept in a bibliography file whose extension is .bib, this file consists of a list of records and fields. Each bibliography record holds relevant information for a single entry.
This file contains records in a special format, for instance, the first bibliographic reference is defined by:
- This is the first line of a record entry, denotes the entry type and tells BibTeX that the information stored here is about an article. Besides the entry types shown in the example (, and ) there are a lot more, see the reference guide.
- The label is assigned to this entry, is an identifier that can be used to refer this article within the document.
- This is the first field in the bibliography entry, indicates that the author of this article is Albert Einstein. Several comma-separated fields can be added using the same syntax , for instance: title, pages, year, URL, etc. See the reference guide for a list of possible fields.
The information in this file can later be used within a LaTeX document to include these references, as shown in the next subsection.
Open an example of the bibtex package in ShareLaTeX
Adding the bibliography in the table of contents
There are two ways of including the bibliography in the table of contents, either manually adding it or using the package tocbibind (recommended).
To add it manually just insert the next line right before the command or
for books and reports or
for articles. If you prefer to use tocbibind see the next example.
Adding the line
to the preamble will print the "References" or "Bibliography" in the table of contents, depending on the document type. Be careful, it will also add other elements like the Index, Glossary and list of Listings to the table of contents. For more information see [the tocbibind package documentation].
Open an example of the bibtex package in ShareLaTeX
Standard entry types
- Article from a magazine or journal
- A published book
- A work that is printed but have no publisher or sponsoring institution
- An article in a conference proceedings
- A part of a book (section, chapter and so on)
- A part of a book having its own title
- An article in a conference proceedings
- Technical documentation
- A Master's thesis
- Something that doesn't fit in any other type
- A PhD thesis
- The same as
- Report published by an institution
- Document not formally published, with author and title
Most common fields used in BibTeX
For more information see:
Franklin Mitchell Beamer (born October 18, 1946) is a retired American college football coach, most notably for the Virginia Tech Hokies, and former college football player. Beamer was a cornerback for Virginia Tech from 1966 to 1968. His coaching experience began in 1972, and from 1981 to 1986 Beamer served as the head football coach at Murray State University. He then went on to become the head football coach at Virginia Tech from 1987 until his final game in 2015. He was one of the longest tenured active coaches in NCAA Division I FBS and, at the time of his retirement, was the winningest active coach at that level. Beamer remains at Virginia Tech in the position of special assistant to the athletic director, where he focuses on athletic development and advancement.
Early life and playing career
Beamer was born in Mount Airy, North Carolina, and grew up on a farm in Fancy Gap, Virginia.
Beamer is a direct descendant of the notorious Allen clan of Carroll County, Virginia. In 1912, during a court trial, his great-uncle, Floyd Allen, fired rounds in a spasm of violence. The courtroom shooting left five people dead, including the judge, a prosecutor, and the county sheriff.
In 1954, at the age of seven, Frank suffered a life altering accident. After using a push broom to keep a pile of burning trash in place, he returned it to its place in the garage, unaware that it was smoldering. A spark ignited a nearby can of gasoline, which exploded in front of him. His 11-year-old brother, Barnett saved him by rolling him around on the ground. Frank was left with burns on his shoulders, chest, and the right side of his neck. Over the next several years, Beamer underwent dozens of skin graft procedures, leaving him with permanent scarring.
Beamer attended high school in Hillsville, Virginia, and earned 11 varsity letters in three different sports: football, basketball, and baseball. In 1966, he attended Virginia Tech and played football. He was a starting cornerback for 3 years, playing in the 1966 and 1968Liberty Bowls. He graduated from Virginia Tech in 1969 and attended Radford University for graduate school, while serving as an assistant football coach at Radford High School.
Early coaching positions
Beamer began as an assistant at Radford High School from 1969 through 1971. His college coaching experience began in 1972, when he became a graduate assistant for the University of Maryland, College Park. After one season, he became an assistant coach at The Citadel under Bobby Ross. He spent seven seasons at The Citadel, the last two as the defensive coordinator.
Beamer was hired as the defensive coordinator at Murray State University in 1979 under head coach, Mike Gottfried. In 1981, after two seasons as defensive coordinator, Frank was promoted to head coach. In his six years as head coach, Beamer compiled a record of 42–23–2 (.642). Frank hired former Murray State defensive back, Bud Foster as a graduate assistant in 1981. Foster later joined Beamer's coaching staff at Virginia Tech in 1987.
On December 22, 1986, Beamer was hired as the head coach at Virginia Tech, replacing Bill Dooley, the winningest coach in school history to date. However, Dooley had been forced to resign due to numerous NCAA violations. Beamer signed a four-year contract worth $80,000 annually. Virginia Tech's new athletic director, Dale Baughman, also replacing Dooley in that capacity, received criticism for hiring Beamer. "Some people have questioned this decision because he is not a big name," Baughman said at the time. "But it's a sound decision, and I'm standing by it." Beamer took over a Virginia Tech football program that had reached only six bowl games to that point (three under Dooley). As punishment for Dooley's violations, the Hokies were limited to 85 total scholarships in 1988 and 1989, and 17 initial scholarships in 1989.
In 29 years at the helm of VT, Beamer amassed an overall record of 238–121–2 (.663). His teams went to postseason play after every season from 1993 until his retirement in 2015; the 23 consecutive bowl appearance streak was the longest in the nation at that time. He owns all but one of the Hokies' 10-win seasons (Dooley's final team finished with nine wins on the field, but was awarded a 10th win by forfeit)) and all of their 11-win seasons.
During Beamer's tenure at Virginia Tech, the program evolved from independent status to a member of the Big East Conference to a member of the Atlantic Coast Conference. His teams won three Big East championships and four ACC titles. Beamer was named the Big East Coach of the Year three times, in 1995, 1996, and 1999.
In 1999, Beamer led Virginia Tech to arguably the greatest season in school history to date. The Hokies, led by freshman quarterback Michael Vick, went undefeated in the regular season and appeared in the Sugar Bowl, where they lost a bid for the national championship to Florida State. Despite the national title game loss, Beamer won several coach of the year awards. Beamer was named the ACC Coach of the Year in 2004, his first year competing in the conference. He repeated as ACC Coach of the Year in 2005 while leading his team to the ACC Coastal Division title and an appearance in the inaugural ACC Championship Game. His team was also given the Fall Sportsmanship Award in its inaugural season in the ACC.
On November 1, 2015, Beamer announced his retirement from coaching at the end of the 2015 season which concluded with a 55-52 win over Tulsa in the Independence Bowl on December 26. At the time of his retirement, he was the winningest active coach in Division I FBS with 280 career victories. and is the sixth winningest coach in history at the Division I FBS level. Memphis' Justin Fuente replaced Beamer as the head football coach at Virginia Tech.
Frank Beamer married his wife Cheryl (née Oakley) on April 1, 1972. The two met on a blind date, arranged by Cheryl's sister Sheila, while Frank Beamer was a senior at Virginia Tech. They have two children, Shane and Casey, and five grandchildren. His son, Shane played football at Virginia Tech as a long snapper, and was a member of the 1999 team that played for the national championship. After assistant coaching stops at four different universities, Shane was hired by Virginia Tech in 2011 as the running backs coach and associate head coach. Shane left Virginia Tech upon Frank's retirement in 2015 and currently serves as the tight ends coach and special teams coordinator at the University of Georgia.
In 2006, Beamer and his wife Cheryl published the children's book Yea, It's a Hokie Game Day! under Virginia publisher Mascot Books, Inc.
After the April 16, 2007 Virginia Tech shooting, Beamer was a powerful voice in the Blacksburg community, stating that the most important thing that the Virginia Tech and surrounding community could do was to disallow the act of violence to define the university. Beamer is quoted as saying, “We can’t let one person destroy what goes on here every day, the caring, the thoughtfulness. We can’t let one person destroy that.” 
Career record as a head coach
Post coaching career
After twenty-nine seasons as head coach of Virginia Tech, legendary coach Frank Beamer retired at the conclusion of the 2015 season. He coached the Hokies to 23 consecutive bowl games, including a national championship appearance, along with seven conference championship titles.
In late 2015, Beamer signed an 8-year contract with Virginia Tech, serving as a special assistant to Whit Babcock, Director of Athletics at Virginia Tech, focusing on athletic development and advancement.
On January 17, 2017 Frank Beamer was appointed to the College Football Playoff Committee. Frank joined the 13 member panel, which was formed when the College Football Playoff was implemented in 2013. It is a 3-year appointment and Frank was the 14th person to be named to the committee. The panel's sole purpose is to determine the top four college football teams to play in the designated bowl games to decide the national champion. The members meet each of the final six weeks of the regular season to create a weekly poll of the top 25 teams in the country. Teams ranked one through four in the final poll are the teams that play for the national championship.
Hall of Fame inductions
|Hall of Fame||Year|
|Virginia Tech Hall of Fame ||1997|
|Virginia Sports Hall of Fame ||2017|
|Chick-fil-A Peach Bowl Hall of Fame ||2017|
|Sun Bowl Legend ||2017|
|College Football Hall of Fame ||2018|
Honors and tributes
During Beamer's tenure at Virginia Tech, putting points on the scoreboard has become a full team effort with the offensive, defensive and special teams units. Often when the team scores one or more non-offensive touchdowns, the style of play is described as "Beamerball". Since Beamer's first season in 1987, a player at every position on the defensive unit has scored at least one touchdown, and 35 different players have scored touchdowns on Virginia Tech's special teams.
#25 Beamer Jersey
Before the beginning of the 2016 football season, new coach Justin Fuente and his staff collaborated on ideas of how to honor Beamer during the season. On August 29, 2016 the team announced that as an homage to Frank's transcendent contributions and dedication to special teams, one deserving special teams player would be chosen to wear the number 25 jersey for each game of the 2016 season, earning the title "Special Teams Player of the Week". Frank Beamer wore the number 25 when he played at Virginia Tech as a cornerback from 1966-1968. The honorary jersey became so popular with the players, fans and coaches that the team continued the tradition beyond the 2016 season.
On August 6, 2015 Virginia Tech renamed Spring Road to 'Beamer Way' in honor of Frank Beamer. Located on the west side of Lane Stadium, it is the primary access route to the campus sports facilities. The Virginia Tech Athletics Department also changed its mailing address to '25 Beamer Way' to commemorate his jersey number as a player at the school.
Frank Beamer Day
February 4, 2016 was declared "Frank Beamer Day" in the Commonwealth of Virginia by Governor Terry McAuliffe. In a ceremony on the steps of the Virginia State Capitol in front of a crowd of Virginia Tech students, faculty, and alumni— including his wife, Cheryl Beamer, Government Affairs Directors, Paul Rice and Harvey Creasey III, and university President, Timothy Sands— Governor McAuliffe presented Beamer with a framed certificate to honor his achievements as the head coach of the Virginia Tech football program.
- On July 29, 2016, Frank was honorarily initiated into the Alpha Sigma Phi fraternity at the chapter's 54th Grand Chapter in Norfolk, Virginia.
- On February 1, 2017, Frank Beamer accepted an invitation from Virginia Tech Men's Basketball Coach, Buzz Williams to be an honorary assistant basketball coach and travel with the team for a game at the University of Virginia.
- On January 25, 2018, the Virginia House of Delegates issued a joint resolution (2018- No.158) commending Hall of Fame Coach, Frank Beamer on his many lifelong accomplishments.
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- ^"Current Consecutive Bowl Appearances". Retrieved December 23, 2015.
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- ^Joe Mahoney (December 31, 2015). "Top 10 RTD Sports Stories of 2015". www.richmond.com. Retrieved January 1, 2016.
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- ^"Cheryl Beamer's decades as a coach's wife drawing to a close - Roanoke Times: Frank Beamer". roanoke.com. Retrieved February 6, 2016.
- ^"Shane Beamer named to Hokies' football staff". hokiesports.com. Retrieved February 6, 2016.
- ^"Beamer ball is coming to Georgia". dawgnation.com. Retrieved February 6, 2016.
- ^"Yea, It's a Hokie Game Day!: Cheryl Beamer, Frank Beamer: 9781932888447: Amazon.com: Books". amazon.com. Retrieved February 6, 2016.
- ^Lazenby, Roland (April 18, 2007). "Beamer: "We're Not Going To Take It"". Planet Blacksburg. Retrieved 29 November 2017.
- ^ 2009 OVC Football Media Guide
- ^"Beamer, Howard And Smith Named To College Football Playoff Selection Committee". www.collegefootballplayoff.com. January 17, 2017. Retrieved January 17, 2017.
- ^"Virginia Tech Sports Hall of Fame". www.hokiesports.com. January 8, 2018. Retrieved January 9, 2018.
- ^ abcd"Frank Beamer selected to College Football Hall of Fame's Class of 2018". www.hokiesports.com. January 8, 2018. Retrieved January 9, 2018.
- ^http://www.hokiesports.com/football/notes/20111022.pdf "2011 VT Football Game Notes"
- ^"Virginia Tech to honor Frank Beamer with No. 25 jersey". www.sportingnews.com. August 29, 2016. Retrieved November 17, 2017.
- ^"Special Teams Player of Week to Wear Beamer's No. 25 Jersey for Hokies". www.hokiesports.com. Virginia Tech. August 29, 2016. Retrieved October 25, 2016.
- ^Hincker, Larry (August 6, 2015). "Spring Road renamed 'Beamer Way'". www.vtnews.vt.edu. Virginia Tech. Retrieved October 25, 2016.
- ^"Virginia Tech football: Thursday is 'Frank Beamer Day' in Virginia | NCAA.com". ncaa.com. Retrieved February 6, 2016.
- ^"Alpha Sigma Pi Grand Chapter Workbook - July, 2016"(PDF). Alpha Sigma Phi’s 54th Grand Chapter. 54: page 7 of 76. 2016.
- ^Beamer Out of His Element, accessed February 3, 2017
- ^"HOUSE JOINT RESOLUTION NO. 158". www.virginia.gov. January 25, 2018. Retrieved February 2, 2018.