El Fusilamiento De Torrijos Analysis Essay

The full and accurate title of this painting is Fusilamiento de Torrijos y sus compañeros en las playas de Málaga (“Execution of Torrijos and his Companions on the Beaches of Malaga”). It was painted in 1888 by Spanish romanticist Antonio Gisbert Pérez, known in the English-speaking world mostly as Antonio Gisbert. As you can see it’s quite a startling scene. Priests are saying the last rites over a group of prisoners, some blindfolded, as the firing squad that will execute them lines up behind them. It’s happening on a windswept beach, perhaps in winter, and the scene includes a number of tropes more common to romanticist landscapes than scenes involving people: crashing waves, dramatic clouds and sleepy villages that seem hidden in mist. The drama of the human scene contrasts with the beauty of the natural environment, which is the point.

José María Torrijos and Uriarte was a Spanish general dedicated to the precepts of liberalism, as that term was understood in the 19th century. Basically he was against the absolutist monarchies that then ruled most of Europe. After fighting in the Napoleonic Wars and participating in various movements aimed at ending the rule of kings in Spain, Torrijos, with support in Britain (where he lived in exile), organized a revolt and landed on the Spanish coast in 1831. Things didn’t go so well and he and his men eventually fell into a trap. Forces loyal to the king marched Torrijos and 48 companions to this beach and executed them by firing squad on December 11, 1831. Torrijos was essentially a martyr for the cause of anti-absolutism in Spain.

Gisbert was also a passionate liberal, and, as with many romanticist works, this painting was intended to have a political as well as an artistic dimension. Spain went through a lot in the 19th century, seesawing between republican governments and various monarchist restorations. In 1888, when Gisbert painted this, the country was again under a king, Alfonso XII. Many Spanish intellectuals yearned for a more liberal society. Of course Spain’s history in the next century was equally tumultuous, marked by the bloody Spanish Civil War of the 1930s. Gisbert, who died in 1901, missed all of that, but the sentiments portrayed in Execution of Torrijos lived on long after him.

The original of this magnificent work of art is in the Museo del Prado in Madrid, Spain’s national art museum.

This image is in the public domain.

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Bibliography +

Catalogo Provisional del Museo de Arte Moderno, Imp.del Colegio de Sordomudos, Madrid, 1899, pp. nº139.

Museo de Arte Moderno, Catálogo provisional del Museo de Arte Moderno, Madrid, 1900, pp. nº151.

Lozoya, Juan de Contreras y López de Ayala, Marqués de, Historia del arte hispánico, Salvat, Barcelona-B.Aires, 1949, pp. 391.

Espí Valdés, Adrián, Vida y obra del pintor Gisbert. Un quhacer artístico de alcance internacional que abarcó toda la segunda mitad del siglo XIX., Instituciò Alfons el Magnànim, Valencia, 1971.

Museo Nacional del Prado, Catálogo de las pinturas del siglo XIX, Ministerio de Cultura, Madrid, 1985, pp. 86.

Menéndez Pidal, Ramón, Historia de España, Espasa-Calpe, Madrid, 1989, pp. 417/ lám.176.

Condor, María, Gisbert y la Historia Contemporánea, ARCHIVO ESPAÑOL DE ARTE / ARCHIVO ESPAÑOL DE ARTE Y ARQUEOLOGIA, 63, 1990, pp. 106/ lám.21.

La pintura de historia del siglo XIX en España, Consorcio Madrid 92Museo del Prado, Madrid, 1992, pp. 442-453.

Museo Nacional del Prado, Museo del Prado. Inventario general de pinturas. Nuevas Adquisiciones. Museo Iconográfico. Tapices., Museo del Prado, Espasa Calpe, Madrid, 1996, pp. nº837.

El ''Prado disperso''. Nuevos depósitos. Madrid, Teatro Real, Boletín del Museo del Prado, 17, 1999, pp. 170.

Reyero, Carlos, La Historia pasada como Historia presente. Rosales, Casado y Gisber o la política en el Museo del Prado. En Historias inmortales, Barcelona, 2003, pp. 331-351.

El siglo XIX en el Prado, Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid, 2007, pp. 266/ lám.53.

Espí Valdés, Adrián, Las Bellas Artes en la provincia de Alicante en el siglo XIX, Canelobre, Invierno 64, 2014, pp. 16-33 [26].

Museo Nacional del Prado, Pintura del Siglo XIX en el Museo del Prado: catálogo general, Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid, 2015, pp. 230.

Other inventories +

Inv. Nuevas Adquisiciones (iniciado en 1856).Núm. 837.
837 / Autor D. Antonio Gisbert / Un cuadro titulado ''El fusilamiento de Torrijos y sus compañeros en las playas de Malaga''. / Alto 3'90. Anº. 6'00. // [nota al margen=] Encargado pr. Real decreto de 21 de Enero de 1886. // [con otra grafía=] Pasó al Museo de A. M.

Actas del envío de cuadros del Prado al Museo de Arte Moderno.Núm. 837.

Inv. General del Museo de Arte Moderno, 1899-1902.Núm. 214.

Catálogo Museo de Arte Moderno, 1899.Núm. 139.
SECCIÓN DE PINTURA EN SUS DIVERSAS CLASES, DIBUJOS Y GRABADOS EN LAMINAS. / GISBERT (D. Antonio) [...] 139.- Fusilamiento de Torrijos y sus compañeros. / Alto 3'90 metros. Ancho 6'00 metros.

Catálogo Museo de Arte Moderno, 1900.Núm. 151.
SECCIÓN DE PINTURA EN SUS DIVERSAS CLASES, DIBUJOS Y GRABADOS EN LÁMINAS. / Gisbert (D. Antonio) [...] 151.- Fusilamiento de Torrijos y sus compañeros. / Alto 3'90 metros. Ancho 6'00 metros.

Registros-Inventarios Museo Nacional de Arte Moderno, 1900-1936.Núm. 28-G.

Registros-Inventarios Museo Nacional de Arte Moderno, 1900-1936.Núm. 53-G.

Inv. Museo Arte Moderno, 1954.Núm. 206.

Actas traslado de obras MEAC - Prado, 1971-1973.Núm. 187.

Catálogo Museo del Prado, 1985.Núm. 4348.

Exhibitions +

El Siglo XIX en el Prado
31.10.2007 - 20.04.2008

La pintura de historia del Siglo XIX en España
Madrid
01.10.1992 - 01.12.1992

Location +

Room 061A (On Display)

Update date: 09-02-2018 | Registry created on 28-04-2015

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