Self Assessment Essay Conclusion Transitions

It can sometimes be difficult to start a sentence to express ideas, or find words to show the relationship between ideas. Below is a list of possible sentence starters, transitional and other words that may be useful.

To introduce

This essay discusses …

… is explored …

… is defined …

The definition of … will be given

… is briefly outlined …

… is explored …

The issue focused on ….

… is demonstrated ...

… is included …

In this essay …..

… is explained …

… are identified …

The key aspect discussed …

… are presented …

… is justified …

Views on …. range from ….

… is evaluated …

… is examined …

The central theme …

… is described …

… is analysed …

Emphasised are …

… is explained and illustrated with examples …

 

To conclude

In summary, …

To review, …

In conclusion, …

In brief, …

To summarise, …

To sum up, …

To conclude, …

Thus, …

Hence, …

It has been shown that, …

In short, …

 

To compare and contrast

Similarly, …

In the same way …

Likewise, …

In comparison …

Complementary to this …

Then again, …

However, …

This is in contrast to …

In contrast, …

And yet …

Nevertheless, …

Conversely, …

On the contrary, …

On the other hand, …

Notwithstanding …

Whereas …

In contrast to …

That aside, ...

While this is the case …

... disputes …

Despite this, ...

To add ideas

Also, …

Equally important ...

Subsequently, …

Futhermore, …

Moreover, …

As well as ....

Next…

Another essential point…

Additionally, ...

More importantly, …

In the same way …

Another ...

Then, …

In addition, …

Besides, ...

Then again, …

Firstly, ... secondly, ... thirdly, ... finally, ...

To elaborate, ...

To present uncommon or rare ideas

Seldom ...

Few ...

Not many ...

A few ...

... is uncommon

... is scarce ...

Rarely ...

... is rare ...

... is unusual ...

To present common or widespread ideas

Numerous ...

Many ...

More than ...

Several ...

Almost all ...

The majority ...

Most ...

Commonly ...

Significant ...

... is prevalent ...

... is usual ...

Usually ...

To present inconclusive ideas

Perhaps ...

... may be ...

... might be ...

There is limited evidence for ...

... is debated ...

... is possibly ...

... could ...

... may include ...

 

To give examples

For example, ...

... as can be seen in ...

... supports ...

An illustration of ...

... as demonstrated by ...

... is observed ...

Specifically, ...

... is shown ...

... exemplifies ...

Such as ...

As an example ...

To illustrate, ...

For instance, ...

 

 

To show relationships or outcome

Therefore ...

As a result ...

For that reason ...

Hence, ...

Otherwise, ...

Consequently, ...

The evidence suggests/shows ...

It can be seen that ...

With regard to ...

After examining ....

These factors contribute to ...

It is apparent that ...

Considering ... it can be concluded that ...

Subsequently, ....

The effect is ...

The outcome is ...

The result ...

The correlation ...

The relationship ...

The link ...

The convergence ...

The connection ...

... interacts with ...

Both ....

... affects ...

Thus it is ...

... causes ...

... influences ...

... predicts ...

... leads to ...

... informs ...

... presupposes

... emphasises

... demonstrates ...

... impacts on ...

... supports ...

To present prior or background ideas

In the past, ...

Historically, ...

Traditionally, ...

Customarily, ...

Beforehand, ...

Originally, ...

Prior to this, ...

Earlier, ...

Formerly, ...

Previously, ...

Over time, ...

At the time of ...

Conventionally, ...

Foundational to this is ...

In earlier ...

Initially, ...

At first, ...

Recently ...

Until now, ...

The traditional interpretation ...

 

To present others' ideas

According to …

Based on the findings of ... it can be argued...

… proposed that …

As explained by …

… states that …

… claims that …

However, ... stated that …

... suggested …

… concluded that …

Similarly, … stated that ….

… for example, …

… agreed that …

Based on the ideas of …

… defined …. as ….

… relates …

As identified by …

… disputed that …

… contrasts …

With regard to … argued that …

… concluded that …

… confirmed that …

... argues ….

… highlights …

… demonstrates …

… found that …

… identifies …

... wrote that …

… demonstrated …

… also …

… reported ….

… pointed out that …

… maintained that …

… hypothesised that …

… expressed the opinion that …

... also mentioned ….

... asserts that ….

… identified …

… goes on to state/suggest/say

… emphasises

… challenges the idea ….

… showed that …

… explored the idea …

 

Adapted from the following source

Manalo. E., Wont_Toi, G., & Bartlett-Trafford, J. (2009). The business of writing: Written communication skills for business students (3rd ed.). Auckland: Pearson Education New Zealand.

 

Updated August 22, 2012

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Connect Ideas Within Paragraphs

When explaining transitions to students, we often focus on how they connect or link paragraphs within a piece. Then, we typically introduce the words first, next, then, last. Those transition words work when describing an event, retelling a story, or explaining a life cycle.

However, not everything fits a chronological text structure. Eventually, students will compare and contrast ideas or write about the multiple facets of a bigger topic or state an opinion followed by supporting reasons. Each of these types of writings also requires transitions, but the connections are no longer sequential. Consequently, first, next, then, last will no longer suffice.

Transitions do more than just connect paragraphs. They define how individual sentences are related to one another. Think of them like road signs, alerting the reader to the kind of information coming next. Transitions signal to the reader the kind of information coming. Writers need to prepare their readers for a shift in ideas. Check out this middle example about babysitting and an elementary example on Native American living.

Provide students a list of transition words/phrases organized by purpose. This makes it possible for students to choose the right transition to show connections.

Model how to choose which category should be used. To do this, provide two-sentence combinations and then think aloud about how the ideas are related. It's all about the context.

  • Read aloud the first example. Those two sentences are depicting two students acting differently. Now I look at my sheet, and I find a category that fits that. They are contrasting details, so I should choose one of those examples.
  • Read aloud the second example. The first sentence was about watch dogs, and the second sentence is more about watch dogs. It's basically saying the same thing again. As I look at the list, I'm thinking it's a restatement.
  • Read aloud the third example. The first sentence is about Babe Ruth being a good pitcher and a good batter. The next sentence is an extra something about just the batting. This extra info is emphasizing something.
  • Read aloud the fourth example. The first sentence describes all the things Bobby puts on a sandwich. The second sentence lists more. It's providing additional information on the same point.

Transitions are essential to strong organization. They are what writers use to create a logical flow of ideas. Be sure not to limit students' application of transitions to just connecting paragraphs or sections of writing. We want them to apply transitions within each paragraph, too.

Article originally posted March 10, 2017.

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