- a reference to a label in your BibTeX file whenever you want to cite an item in the file
- a reference to the bibliography style file you want to use, which determines how the references you cite are formatted in the bibliography of your document (and possibly a LaTeX style file associated with the bibliography style)
- a LaTeX command to generate the bibliography at the point in your document where you want it to appear.
Here is an example using the bibliography style , which produces citations in "author (year)" format. This file is available on this page (which has instructions on where to put the file once you get it). The lines related to BibTeX are highlighed. It requires the LaTeX style file to produce citations in the right style in the text (matching the format of the references produced by ). You probably have this file already (assuming you have some implementation of TeX on your computer). If you don't, you can get it on this CTAN page. Hover over orangetext to see explanations.
When you run the LaTeX file through LaTeX and BibTeX (instructions below), you'll get output for the body of the document that looks roughly like this:
This document illustrates the use of BibTeX. You may want to refer to Arrow et al. (1961) or Aliprantis and Border (1994) or Maskin (1985). Or you may want to cite a specific page in a reference, like this: see Maskin (1985, p. 199). Or perhaps you want to cite more than one paper by Maskin: Maskin (1985, 1999). Or you want to make a parenthetical reference to one or more articles, in which case the \citealt command omits the parentheses around the year (Arrow et al. 1961).A few more options for the command are available. Here they are:
|Jones et al. (1990)|
|Jones, Baker, and Smith (1990)|
|(Jones et al. 1990)|
|(Jones, Baker, and Smith 1990)|
|(Jones et al., 1990, p. 99)|
|(e.g. Jones et al., 1990)|
|(e.g. Jones et al., 1990, p. 99)|
|Jones et al.|
|Jones, Baker, and Smith|
|*||Jones et al.'s (1990)|
*Assumes \citeapos is defined in your style or document like this:(Thanks to Christopher M. Duncombe Rae for pointing out this simple way of generating a possessive citation.)
The list of references will look like this:
Aliprantis, Charalambos D. and Kim C. Border (1994), Infinite Dimensional Analysis. Springer, Berlin.
Arrow, Kenneth J., Leonid Hurwicz, and Hirofumi Uzawa (1961), "Constraint qualifications in maximization problems." Naval Research Logistics Quarterly, 8, 175–191.
Maskin, Eric S. (1985), "The theory of implementation in Nash equilibrium: a survey." In Social Goals and Social Organization (Leonid Hurwicz, David Schmeidler, and Hugo Sonnenschein, eds.), 173–204, Cambridge University Press.
Maskin, Eric S. (1999), "Nash equilibrium and welfare optimality." Review of Economic Studies, 66, 23–38.
Example usingHere is an example using the bibliography style , which in included in many LaTeX systems.
When you run the LaTeX file through LaTeX and BibTeX (instructions below), you'll get output for the body of the document that differs from the output when you use only in that the names of all three authors of Arrow, Hurwicz, and Uzawa (1961) are listed in the first citation to that work, although not in the second, parenthetical, citation.
The list of references differs more significantly from the list produced by : only authors' initials, not their full first names, are included, and "&" rather than "and" is used as a separator; numbers in page ranges are separated by hyphens, rather than the conventional en-dashes. Precisely, the list of references produced by looks like this:
Aliprantis, C. D. & K. C. Border (1994), Infinite Dimensional Analysis. Berlin: Springer.
Arrow, K. J., Hurwicz, L., & Uzawa, H. (1961), Constraint qualifications in maximization problems. Naval Research Logistics Quarterly, 8, 175-191.
Maskin, E. S. (1985), The theory of implementation in Nash equilibrium: a survey. In L. Hurwicz, D. Schmeidler, & H. Sonnenschein (Eds.), Social Goals and Social Organization (p. 173-204). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Maskin, Eric S. (1999), Nash equilibrium and welfare optimality. Review of Economic Studies, 66, 23-38.
Other bibliography styles for author-year citationsA family of styles that produce author-year citations is available on this page.
Creating your own bibliography styleA BibTeX style file is plain text, which in principle you can edit. However, the language used is arcane, and changes that are more than trivial are tricky. A better way to proceed is to create a new style file from scratch, using the custom-bib package (that's how I created ). You run TeX on a file, which asks you a long list of questions about the features of the style you would like. You'll probably not be completely clear about your preferred answers to all the questions on your first attempt, but two or three runs should produce a format to your liking.
How do I create bibliographies in LaTeX?
On this page:
There are two methods for creating a bibliography. The first can be used for short documents with only a few sources, and is fairly simple. The second method is used for large documents and theses, and involves using a program called "bibtex".
If all of this seems complicated, there is a simpler way to produce a quick bibliography for your document. This can be used for smaller papers, ones that don't need a very extensive bibliography. Something like this will work fine:
You can put this at the end of your LaTeX file. If you want to refer to something from your bibliography you can put something like this in yourfile:
which would produce something like
Pretend that the file that we are using is called 'foo.tex'. To make a bibliography, we should put all our sources into a file called 'foo.bib'. The structure of foo.bib is as follows:
For our sample document, we will use the following:
BIBTeX uses REAL quotation marks (") and NOT the opening and closing quotation marks (`` and '') that LaTeX normally uses.
Now, everytime you refer to the book Foo Bar Baz in foo.tex, you refer to it in the following manner:
This will match the citation number with the number of the book in the list of references.
If you have a few references that you did not explicitly cite in the text of your document, but you would like to include it in the list of references, you use the following (in foo.tex):
where baz, fuzz, and bong are abbreviations for the other texts.
To actually create the bibliography, you need to use the following commands in foo.tex (these are usually at the end of the document - where you want the References section to appear):
There are several options for \bibliographystyle:
|plain||normal style - listed in ABC order and labeled numerically|
|unsrt||same as plain except entries appear in order of citation|
|alpha||same as plain except entry labels are used|
|abbrv||same as plain except uses abbreviations for first names, month names, and journal names|
Now that you have the basis for a bibliography, you have to run both latex and bibtex on the document. First, you should run latex (to create a foo.aux file, which bibtex reads). Then run bibtex once to get some of the citations and create a .bbl file. Then run latex again so that the cross references between the text file and the bibliography are correct. You may want to repeat running bibtex and latex on the file to make sure that all cross references are correct. Be warned that adding/deleting citations and sources will require running bibtex again.
For more information on this topic, please refer the following pages in the LaTeX manual by Leslie Lamport: